Most of the military rulers who are ruling countries are not implementing direct military rules as the world is moving toward the modern phase of its political scenario. That means the world is gradually running out to see direct military rules in its political structures. Rather, countries that used to be managed under direct rules are now moving either towards a different form of authoritarianism or introducing democracy. But though Myanmar introduced its newly elected democratic government to its citizens in 2011, it is once again grasped under the armed force regime, though not in a direct manner.
How military coup started in Myanmar?
Burma, after getting its independence from the British regime, with its excessive influence over the county’s economy, and overall social structure, the military becomes the supreme power to take the control of Myanmar. Then, because of its stable attitude, Myanmar is still now regarded as the world’s most durable military-governed country.
After becoming independent from British rule, Myanmar, mostly known as Burma for its ethnic dominance, faced several insurgencies along its country. Took over control of these insurgencies, and for some other similar reasons, the military in this country became able to put so much imperium, followed by modernizing armed forces to become more powerful and then started to overlook the institutional prosperity of the state. And the result is what we can apprehend; “a military spillover around the country ranging from using its resources to responsibilities and powers in a country which was used to be controlled in a non-military realm” (Callahan, 2003).
You can also read: How can IMF loan help curve the LC crisis for RMG sector?
Like undivided Pakistan’s election of 1954, the military junta in Burma also gave words to handover the power to the elected representatives of the people in 1988, and will transform the country into a fully democratic one, the junta refused to give over the powers to the elected body, the National League for Democracy (NLD) after the election held in 1990. From then, by the face of a caretaker government, the military junta said that the country was facing barriers to transforming into a democratic one due to not having any constitutions.
Finally, it was in 2003 when the military once again declared with a specific guideline of transferring into a “democratic nation”, they would transfer the power to the elected representatives of the country. After becoming able to write a constitution for the country, the military held a multi-party election in 2011, though mostly tilted to the military’s side. Following the results, the country then started to get experience a civilian government the same year.
Distinguished from both the authoritarian and democratic government, the military coup, which means, a system of governance run by the military, shattering the hopes of millions of people to live under a democratic regime peacefully, again took over the power of Myanmar on the 1st February of 2021.
How has Myanmar suffered and is suffering by the military junta?
The post-British rule history is nowhere something to be noted as good memories for its inhabitants. Suffered by the authoritative formula of the junta government, Myanmar and its people were used to struggling with the continuous civil war alongside its map, poor governing modules, and poverty that took over the whole country to even breathe in peace.
Compared to its neighboring countries, Myanmar, from the history of its independence, became a poor country for not being able to meet the points to be noted as an economically efficient country. Named Tatmadaw, Myanmar has now introduced a new phase of its old governance system, which might lead the country to violence, as what happened in its first phase before 2011.
To oppose the new government, with the leadership of former lawmakers and activists, a shadow government was formed and disseminated forces along different parts of the country, to fight the ruling party’s coup. The military’s excessive and brutal crackdown was incorporated in the fields sooner, but it didn’t take control of the overall situation yet, as most of the areas of the county still have not been made free from these protesters.
Under the military cop, the country is suffering now from economic turmoil, and the gains earned over the past few decades in reducing poverty are also now fading out day by day, as the number of poor people is increasing alarmingly there. The report says the overall economy of the country is downed to about 20per cent in 2021. During the pandemic situation, the country suffered heavily from a lack of enough medical support. CFR’s Joshua Kurlantzick remarked that Myanmar, as a country is now becoming a failing one.
Things are not introduced the first time like here. Myanmar also suffered from these problems in the first phase of the military coup. As a result of the isolationist policies of the junta government of Myanmar, this country faced extreme poverty compared to its neighboring countries in the 1960s to 1970s.
Now, for the new phase of the junta government, Myanmar is in fact, facing from currency shortage even to transact. Due to civil unrest, political turmoil, and significant economic shutdown, many foreign investment companies are also leaving the country. The country is facing sanctions from many countries as well. Tourism is like a dead bird as tourists are not showing interest to visit this country, though it has abundant natural resources to be visited, and it was the tourism industry, that put so efforts into making the economy of Myanmar better and better after its military coup in 2011.
The Western point of view on Myanmar’s democracy:
“At this point, we are not giving away effort in near future, as we hope rigidly not to see and commemorate the third anniversary of this military coup. Rather, we will love to see a moment when Myanmar will have returned to its democratic phase once again” – Derek Chollet, the counselor of the US state department during a telephone brief on the occasion of the second anniversary of the military coup of Myanmar.
In addition to his speech, Chollet added that The US, UK, Australia, and Canada, the country in the partnership are standing with the people of Myanmar and showing solidarity to them, and are in the movement of taking action against the entire coup of the military regime in Myanmar. He also added, the supply of military assistance to Myanmar from Russia is not a matter to be accepted and they are all concerned about it.
The US will also take actions to limit these types of assistance between these countries. The Us is coordinating with specific bodies like the UN, ASEAN, and other international bodies to hold the lease of Myanmar’s junta regime and make them accountable for all the things that happened there – Chollet added.
Situations are clearly indicating that, the US is now going to put pressure on the junta government to restore democracy by supporting the pro-democracy movement. On the eve of Last year, a Burma act was passed by the US congress with the goal of incorporating specific impositions over the junta government of Myanmar and providing necessary humanitarian assistance there.