Bangladesh has a population of 165.16 million people, according to the Population and Housing Census 2022. In many social sectors, including population, literacy, population growth, population density, and religion ratio, there are signs of change which can be seen from the data.
The sixth Population and Housing Census of 2022 began on 15 June 2022 with the enumeration of transient individuals in various regions of the country. The census is the official record of a country’s entire population and households. It is the primary source of accurate and trustworthy data on the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of a population.
What is population and housing census?
Scheduled to be conducted every 10 years, the population census reports reveal the nation’s performance over the past decade in relation to specific demographic parameters. After the country’s first census in 1974, subsequent censuses have occurred in 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2011; the sixth one took place in 2022.
A year was added to the current census due to the pandemic. It includes information at the lowest administrative or geographical level, related rates, and indicators such as population growth rates, age structure, age and gender composition, educational characteristics, labor force, and social and economic structure.
There have been significant socioeconomic changes and advancements in our national lives since the 2011 census. Let’s examine some of the most significant alterations-
Population is now 165 million
The present population of Bangladesh is 165,158,616 according to the most recent census. There were 7,14,79,071 people counted in the first census in 1974; by 2022, that number had more than doubled to 165,158,616.
In the total population, there are 8,17,12,824 males, 8,33,47,206 females, and 12,629 transgender individuals. Approximately 113,063,587 of the population reside in rural areas, while 52,009,072 reside in urban areas.
According to the previous census, the country’s population in 2011 was 144,043,697.
Bangladesh’s female population outnumbers male population
The census of population and housing 2022 has revealed for the first time that there are more women than males in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh’s female population is 83.34 million whereas male population is 81.71 million.
Currently, there are approximately 99 men for every 100 women.
Prior to the 2001 census, the gender ratio in Bangladesh was 100.3, whereas it was 106.4 in the 2001 census.
According to experts, the sustained increase in women’s life expectancy could be a reason why men have been outnumbered.
Bangladesh’s population growth declines
Bangladesh’s population growth has decreased. The rate was 2.84 percent in 1981, 2.01 percent in 1991, 1.58 percent in 2001, 1.37 percent in 2011 and 1.22 percent in 2022. Dhaka has the highest population growth rate among the eight divisions of the country, at 1.74 percent, while Barisal has the lowest, at 0.74 percent.
Literacy rate in Bangladesh up 22.89%
According to the most recent census, the nation’s literacy rate has risen by 22.89 percent. In 2011, the rate of literacy was 51.7%; it is now 74.66%. The urban literacy rate is 81.28%, while the rural literacy rate is 71.56%. The male population has a higher rate of 76.56%, while the female population has a rate of 72.82%.
The Dhaka division has the highest literacy rate at 78.09%, while Mymensingh has the lowest at 67.09 %.
Dhaka home to highest population in Bangladesh
The Dhaka division has the greatest population in Bangladesh, while the Barisal division has the least. A division-by-division population assessment reveals that Dhaka’s estimated population is 44,217,107. The rate of population growth in Dhaka is 1.94 percent.
The Barisal division has a total population of 9,325,880 individuals. Chittagong is home to 34,178,581 individuals, Khulna to 17,813,957, and Mymensingh to 12,637,521 individuals.
Higher fertility rate in urban areas
According to the survey, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR), or the number of births per woman, increased from 2.01 percent in 2013 to 2.14 percent in 2021 in urban areas, and from 1.74 percent to 1.85 percent in non-slum areas during the same time frame. The population of semi-urban areas increased from 1.93 in 2013 to 2.22 in 2021.
If the current trend persists, the rising TFR in urban areas paints a less optimistic picture of our population growth.
Experts in health and population have identified a number of causes for the rising trend in birth rates, including the rising rates of child marriage, adolescent pregnancy, and low contraceptive use. Several other government and private surveys conducted over the past two years have also found an alarming increase in the number of minor marriages, especially during the first two years of the pandemic.
A report by the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education, based on information provided by 11,769 secondary schools – nearly half of all secondary schools in the country – found that approximately 50,000 female students were victims of child marriage in 2021, which can contribute to a higher fertility rate in urban areas.
Increased population density
Bangladesh’s population density has increased to 1,119 people per square kilometer. Bangladesh’s population density per square kilometer was 484 in 1974, 590 in 1981, 720 in 1991, 876 in 2001, 976 in 2011, and 1,119 in 2022.
Dhaka has the maximum population density (2,156 per square kilometer), while Barisal has the lowest (688 per square kilometer).
Rajshahi tops divorce rate, Sylhet has most unmarried people
The division of Rajshahi has the highest divorce rate in Bangladesh, at 0.61 percent, according to the most recent census data. The preliminary report of the Population and Housing Census 2022, released on Wednesday, reveals that the number of unmarried persons in Sylhet has increased by 37.77%.
According to the report, the divorce rate is 42%, the married rate is 65.26 %, the single rate is 28.65 %, the widow or widower rate is 5.31 %, and the marital separation rate is 0.37%.
In addition, the divorce rate in Barisal division is 0.29%, Chittagong division is 0.30%, Dhaka division is 0.40%, Khulna division is 0.55%, Mymensingh division is 0.40%, Rangpur division is 0.38%, and Sylhet division is 0.43%.
27.20% of the population in Barisal is unmarried, compared to 32.57% in Chittagong, 28.93% in Dhaka, 24.52% in Khulna, 27.75% in Mymensingh, 24.38% in Rajshahi, and 25.70% in Rangpur.
Number of Muslims increased in the country
According to the report of the Population and Housing Census-2022, the country’s Muslim population has increased in comparison to believers of other religions.
According to the report, the Hindu population decreased from 8.54 to 7.95 percent, the Buddhist population decreased from 0.62 to 0.61 percent, the Christian population decreased from 0.31 to 0.30 percent, and the population of other religions decreased from 0.12 to 0.14 percent.
The Muslim population has increased from 90.39 percent to 91.04 percent.